School is out but we all know that if your students don’t “use it” they will “lose it” – their reading skills – that is. As parents, we also are familiar with those “I don’t know what to do with myself” summer blues. Listening to audio books may just be the answer. If you student is looking for a relaxing way to spend some time this summer, have him or her check out www.audiobooksync.com. This website holds a multitude of books for students and families to listen to in audio mode. This is great for the student who needs to enhance their vocabulary, English skills or who just want to build their background knowledge of classic books to better prepare themselves for College. During the summer months from May 5th to August 17th, SYNC will be giving away 2 audiobook downloads a week based on weekly themes. There is also a section for teachers with additional resources on the site. This is a great way to help students enjoy reading, learn new vocabulary and keep those reading and comprehension skills razor sharp.
While most high school students can tell you all about the latest movies they have seen, most of our students cannot tell you about great books that they have read recently. Since kids like to spend time on social networking sites, capitalize on this love by introducing your students to some online reading social networking sites. One of these is www.goodreads.com. At this site, readers can find out what their friends are reading and read reviews of popular books for adolescent readers. At www.shelfari.com by Amazon, students can create a shelf of books to show what they are reading and what you have finished reading. You can also recommend books for other readers. At www.bookcrossing.com, readers can track books when they leave them for strangers to pick up in cafes, train stations and parks. As people find your book, you will get comments from the readers who have “found” your book as it travels all around the world. Another site to check out is www.bookmooch.com. This site is a type of lending library where you can lend your own books and receive books in the mail from others who participate in the site. The only cost is the postage to send your books on to someone who requests your book. Sharing books with others is a great way to get adolescents interested in reading and sharing books with not only their friends but the world.
Teachers in grades 4-12 frequently complain that their students cannot read the content materials their districts have provided for them to use in content instruction. In addition to this problem, many teachers also say that while they were well trained in their content, they did not receive adequate preparation in teaching reading or helping struggling readers to master content texts. Thus, they feel torn between helping students become well prepared in the content material, they also know that students must receive better instruction in how to read the content materials as well.
In order to help students succeed in content instruction, we must help students activate what they already know about a subject and help them make connections between new knowledge and what they already know on the topic. We must stimulate their thinking and develop a motivation to read to find out specific information. We must help students establish preview the text and set a purpose for their reading so readers know what they will be expected to do with the text. By helping students make predictions about what they will learn from the text, we can also increase motivation and foster interest. By spending a significant amount of time “front-loading” our units, we can help students make better connections with the information they will learn. Anticipation guides, study guides or graphic organizers are a great way of helping students think about what they already know on a topic and then verifying their predictions and connections as a reading follow up. We must also take care to help students clarify and understand new vocabulary that may be important in the text and develop the concepts to connect the meaning to their existing concept bank.
While many content teachers have used Round Robin reading in the classroom, we know that this is not the best way to get students involved in reading. We need to identify collaborative ways that students can share in the reading and presentation of information within the class. Break up chapters by topic and have each group read a section, clarify their understandings and then make a presentation either in jigsaw “expert” groups or as a whole class presentation. Students will be more engaged and will retain more as a result of a more in depth reading of the assigned material. Game formats such as Jeopardy or Who Wants to Be a Millionaire are fun and can be used on a classroom Smart board or computer. Many versions of these fun and engaging games can be found on the internet.
Writing is also a great follow up activity for content learning teachers. Students can use writing to document their learning in academic journals or learning logs, to create reports, or to do more creative things such as create a reader’s theater, poem, or diary that relates back to the content material being learned. Even writing children’s books on content topics is a fun and helpful strategy to use to get students thinking about and clarifying their content understandings. You will find many more outstanding ways to help students develop comprehension and higher order thinking skills in Literacy Strategies for Grades 4-12: Reinforcing the Threads of Reading.
Research tells us that there are certain things that good readers do as they are reading so that they can maximize their understanding of the text. First, good readers use their background knowledge to make sense of what they read. Good teachers know this and help students activate relevant prior knowledge before they ask students to read. Students who do not have a rich storehouse of background knowledge or who come from a different culture, need to have greater levels of pre-teaching before reading including visuals, introduction to new vocabulary, graphic organizers and appropriate realia to enhance their background knowledge prior to reading. When we connect first with our background knowledge reading is more meaningful for the brain.
Good readers create mental images as they read. I tell students that it is like seeing the “movie version” played out in their head as they read. Good readers create images of the characters in a story, the action taking place or pictures of the information which they are learning. Good readers become emotionally involved with what they are reading. How many times have you been so emotionally involved with a good book that you didn’t want to put it down? That’s what good readers do. They identify with the text and become engrossed in it. Help students think about the visual images they get from reading by using graphic organizers, having students draw pictures and verbally describe the mental images they are creating as they read various types of text. Use drawing and graphic organizers to help students visualize the text they are reading.
Good readers know that text should make sense and they know when what they are reading makes sense and when it doesn’t. Good readers know how to use a wide-variety of “fix-up” strategies when they lose meaning while reading. They use many strategies such as skipping ahead, re-reading, reading aloud, slowing the pace and re-reading and asking questions to help themselves problem-solve and reconnect with meaning in the text. Good readers understand that when they no longer understand what they are reading, they need to stop and figure out how to fix the problem before they continue. Teachers need to consciously help students monitor their own comprehension and teach “fix-up” strategies that students can use to problem-solve the reading task. They need to help their students understand that all readers lose meaning from time to time and that the trick is to have strategies to use to get back on track when this happens. You can find many great ideas to use to build strong high school readers in my book, Literacy Strategies: Reinforcing the Threads of Reading.
Good readers identify the most important ideas as they read. They understand how to distinguish between important information and unimportant information as they read. They can use the information that they have learned to synthesize what they have read and retell or summarize it. Good readers can provide an oral or written summary of the main points (or themes) of the text. They can talk about the text, question ideas presented in the text or mesh what they have read with their per-exising background knowledge on the topic to deepen their knowledge of the topic. Model reflective thinking for your students by thinking aloud as you process and think about different types of text. Teachers can help students develop this ability by asking them to write “gist” paragraphs or summaries, discuss the main points of a text and write questions that they have about the text after reading.
Good readers have an expansive vocabulary to talk about text. They can make comparisons between topics and characters because they have a good storehouse of adjectives to make effective comparisons. You can find lists of words that can help students be more specific when they describe characters in my book, Tests That Teach which is about helping students delve deeper into text meaning and understand text at deeper levels so they can do well on state assessments.
Good readers use their prior knowledge and information to relate to the text while they are reading. They make predictions about what will happen, what they might learn in remaining portions of the text, and how the information fits together in a sensible whole. They look for discrepancies or question what the author has written, look for answers to their own questions, draw conclusions, and create interpretations about the text based on both existing and new knowledge. Good readers understand that it is alright to disagree with an author’s position and that they can check other reference sources to see if the information they are reading is valid. In this internet age of rapid information, helping students evaluate information and look for source bias is an important skill that we must teach our students as consumers and users of information. They must know that all information isn’t “created equal.”
Good readers use time tested strategies such as SQ3R to think about what they are reading based on the title, chapter headings and support materials provided in the text. They look for answers to their questions as they read and take organized notes to synthesize important information. Good readers reflect on what they have read. They talk to others to clarify their questions or confusions and sort out key information to add to their own storehouse of knowledge. They mesh new knowledge with existing knowledge to build a solid set of beliefs and understandings about various topics. This is truly the goal of education.